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September 13, 2022

wiring harness basicial introduction

What are the specifications of the power cord?


Power cord model specifications

A power cord is a wire that transmits electric current. The usual way of current transmission is point-to-point transmission. Power cord according to the use can be divided into AC power cord and DC power cord, usually AC power cord is through the higher voltage AC wire, this type of wire due to the higher voltage needs to be unified standards to obtain safety certification before official production. The DC line is basically through the lower voltage DC, so the safety requirements are not as strict as the AC line, but for safety reasons, countries still require unified safety certification.

The standard commonly known as the power cord is composed of three parts: net power plug , removable power cord , net power connector .

GB 9706.1-2020 standard definition Content in four parts: wire, plug, certification and material costing.


Part I: wire

A. Wire classification

1, according to safety regulations.

1.1: UL / CUL (CSA) (U.S., Canada): the main wire types are: SPT-1, SPT-2, SVT, SJT, 1007, 1015, 2468, etc.

1.2: VDE (Germany, Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Switzerland) ten countries. Line types mainly include: HO3VVH2-F, HO3VV-F, HO5VVH2-F, HO5VV-F, etc..

1.3: CCC (national standard) wire types are mainly: 52 (RVV), 53 (RVV), etc.

1.4: PSE (Japan) wire types are mainly: VFF, VCTF, VCTFK, etc.

1.5: SAA and some other small areas of the standard line and non-standard line.

2、According to the structure.

2.1: single insulated line (only a layer of insulator line) such as: SPT-1, 1007, etc.

2.2: Covered line (a line with two or more layers of insulator) Such as: SJT, HO3VVH2-F, 1185, etc.

3、According to the electrical properties.

3.1: Wire and cable: SVT , SPT-1, HO3VVH2-F, etc.

3.2: Electronic wire: 1007, 1015, 2468, 1185, etc.


(Wire, cable, electronic wire are masking line. The role of the masking line is mainly anti-interference, sub aluminum foil, copper foil, braiding, winding, etc.)

Second, the structure of the wire

Wire is mainly composed of two major components: the conductor and insulator.

1, conductor

1.1: conductor materials: copper, aluminum, iron, silver, gold, fiber optics, etc.; where the use of copper is the most widely used, and power lines are mainly soft annealed copper wire. Copper wire is also divided into bare copper wire (AS), tinned copper wire (TS).

1.2: Conductor structure: a combination of conductor and single conductor (the diameter of the conductor according to the requirements of different safety regulations have different requirements).

1.3: Conductor resistance.

UL/CUL standard: 20 ℃ long 1m. 1mm2 cross-sectional area of soft copper standard resistance of 0.017241Ω.

VDE/CCC standard: 20 ℃ long 1m. cross-sectional area of 1mm2 soft copper standard resistance of 0.0195Ω.


2.1: Insulator materials: paper, cotton, lacquer, plastic, rubber, mica, etc.; where plastic is most widely used in the wire. Plastics are mainly PVC (polyvinyl chloride), PE (polyethylene), PP (polypropylene), etc.

2.2: insulation resistance.

UL/CULF minimum insulation resistance of the wire insulator: 20 ℃, 500VDC, 2.5MΩ/1KFT. VDE/CCC provides a variety of different wire species in 70 ℃, 80-500VDC minimum resistance.

(UL/CUL and VDE/CCC standards on the insulation resistance of the test is different.)

2.3: Flame retardancy of insulation materials.

2.3.1: UL/CUL has explicitly determined into: FT1, FT2, FT4, FT6, VW-1; where FT1 or VW-1 is UL's common requirements for the wire, CUL (CSA) generally only required to meet the FT2 standard.

2.3.2: VDE/CCC, etc. also have specific requirements for the resistance burning of insulation materials, but there is no specific distinction.

2.4: Insulator withstand voltage: Each safety regulation has different requirements for different wires.

UL/CUL is generally divided into: 30, 90, 125, 300, 600, 1000V; VDE/CCC is generally divided into: 300/300V, 300/500V, 470/750V.

2.5: Insulator temperature resistance: UL/CUL generally divided into: 60 ℃, 75 ℃, 90 ℃, 105 ℃; VDE/CCC generally divided into: 70 ℃, 90 ℃.

III. Marking

1、Marking method: oil printing, gravure printing, letterpress printing, printing tape, etc.

2, marking spacing.

UL / CUL regulations 610mm or less.

VDE regulations sheath surface marking spacing of 550mm or less; no sheath insulation surface, marking with marking spacing of 275mm or less.

CCC regulations sheath 500mm or less; insulating surface 200mm or less.

3, marking content.

3.1: UL / CUL requirements

(1) manufacturer (factory name or trademark).

(2) certification symbols "UL", "CUL", "CSA".

(3) File number.

(4) Wire name.

(5) Conductor type and number of cores (conductor type is indicated by numbers, and the relationship between type and conductor cross-sectional area is shown in "Exhibit (1)".

Schedule (1)

(6) rated temperature (60 ℃ can be marked or unmarked).

(7) Flame retardant grade.

(8) rated voltage (300V can be marked or unmarked)

(9) If the waterproof line by marking "W" (waterproof generally 60 ℃, 75 ℃, 90 ℃ which waterproof 60 ℃ can be marked without labeling instructions; waterproof instructions: "water resistant 60 ℃".

(10) special labeling: general cold-resistant points -40 ℃, -50 ℃, -60 ℃, -70 ℃; such as: low temperature -50 ℃.

UL/CUL mark (example): UL E203743 SJTW 18AWG×3C 105℃ VW-1 300V "water resistant 60℃"; (10) Special marking: general cold-proofing: -40℃, -50℃, -60℃, -70℃; e.g.: low temperature -50℃; shield marking: "shieldeel"; insulation marking and ground marking for SPT-1, 2, 3, HPN for 3 cores. resistant 60℃"


3.2: VDE marking (example)


3.3: CCC mark (example).

LONG HUI 227 IEC 53 (RVV) 300/500V 3×0.75mm2 90℃ CCC 2002010105024716 GB5023-1997.

Part II: Plugs
A. Plug classification

1: According to safety regulations: UL/CUL, VDE, CCC, T-MARK, SAA, BSI, etc.

2: According to the structure: divided into plugs, sockets and connectors. Plugs, sockets are generally divided into two-pole plug and two-pole with grounding plug.

3: According to the electrical performance: divided into AC plug and DC plug.

Second, the plug structure

Plug is mainly composed of plug conductor and insulator.

1: plug conductor to copper conductor is the main.

2: Insulators are mainly PVC, PE, PP, etc..

Third, the plug's performance requirements and labeling

Plug performance requirements and labeling, generally connected to the performance of its wire is inseparable. So its performance and labeling actually refers to the performance and labeling of the combination of plugs and wires.

Plug and wire combinations are generally referred to as "power cord".

1: the physical properties of the power cord, depending on the safety regulations have different requirements (omitted).

2: the electrical properties of the power cord (experimental performance omitted, safety standards are as follows)

2.1: UL / CUL power cord rated current, voltage values (see Schedule (2))

2.2: T-MARK power cord rated current, voltage values (see Exhibit (3)).

2.3: VDE power cord rated current, voltage value (see Exhibit (4))

2.4: UL/CUL power cord rated current, voltage value (see Exhibit (5)).

Note: The plug-in conductor of the power cord above 16A is different from 6 and 10A.

Note: ①The specific type of wires and plugs are shown in Longhui catalog.

②The main certification symbols are shown on page 35 of the Longhui catalog.

③Common electric voltage and frequency of each country are shown on page 36-37 of Longhui catalog.

Part III: Certification
Our main certifications are UL/CUL, CCC for plugs and wires, VDE and other certifications need to use other people's certifications because of the cost.

Part IV: Material costing
Power cord material costs mainly account for: wire, plugs, SR, housing and accessories, packaging materials, normal losses (divided into wire production, plug production).

1, wire material costs mainly refers to the normal amount of copper and PVC costs. (Commonly used wire material quantity table)

Wire commonly used data

A: copper

Usage W1 = nлR2/4 × 8.89 × 1.02 (g / m) n for the number of copper wire branches, R for the copper wire diameter (diameter).

Copper wire cost P1 = W1 × M1 M1 is the purchase unit price of copper wire.


W1 = (S1-S2) × 1.5 (g / m) S1 is the overall cross-sectional area of the wire, S2 is the conductor cross-sectional area.

PVC cost P2=W2×M2 M2 is the purchase unit price of PVC.

C: the normal loss of wire production is generally taken as 3 points of occupancy.

(Normal loss means: refers to the normal downtime, start-up, wiring losses and packaging tape, film, talc, ink and other auxiliary materials consumption).

In general wire material cost = (M1 + M2) / 0.97 × L, L is the length of the power cord wire.

2, plug material cost = plug PVC dosage cost + plug conductor cost (with common plug and SR with PVC dosage table).

Plug and SR raw material loss table

3, SR and accessories cost = SR with PVC cost + the cost of accessories.

4, the cost of packaging materials (can be calculated according to the number of packaging individual costs, but usually take 2-3 points of occupancy together with the normal loss of plug production).

5, plug production normal loss to take 1-2 points (loss of mainly cut wire, wire head, tail ties, tin, etc.).

According to 1-5 points derived from the power cord material cost = (wire cost + plug cost + SR and accessories cost) / 0.98 (or 097).

Note: Conversion of units of measurement

1'(Feet) = 12''(inch) = 30.48cm; 1''(inch) = 25.4mm.

1 foot feet(ft) = 0.00018939393939394miles(miles) = 12 inches inches(inches) = 30.48 centimetres(cm) = 0.3048meters(meters)

1'(Feet)=304.8mm; 1kg=2.204LBF; 1KG=9.8N; 1kgf=9.81N, 1N=0.102kgf

feet denotes feet, the plural form of foot. feet is abbreviated as ft, and is especially used in English-speaking countries as a unit of length generally equal to 1/3 of a yard or 12 inches.

inch indicates inches, abbreviated as in, generally: 1in = 2.54cm, in the imperial system, 12 inches is 1 foot, 36 inches is 1 yard.

N kgf lbf three are units of force. n for the newton (newton), is the international unit. kgf for the kilogramforce (kilogramforce), is the metric system units.

lbf for pounds of thrust (libraforce), is the imperial unit. 1lbf = 4.45N, 1N = 0.225lbf


V. System Certification
1. System Certification

ISO9001 quality management system certification; ISO14001 environmental management system certification; OHSAS18001 occupational health and safety management system certification; ISO22000 food safety management system certification.

FSSC22000 food safety system certification; HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point; ISO13485 medical device quality management system certification; ISO/TS16949 international automotive industry quality management system certification.

ISO/IEC27001 Information Security Management System Certification; ISO10015 Human Resources Training Management System Certification; SA8000 Social Accountability Standard Certification; IQNetSR10 Social Accountability Management System Certification.

ISO/IEC20000 Information Technology Service Management System Certification


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